Saturday, December 18, 2010

100 Manusia Paling Berpengaruh di Dunia

Nabi Muhammad SAW mendahului ranking manusia yang paling berpengaruh dalam sejarah dunia. Hal ini dinyatakan oleh Michael H. Hart, seorang ahli astronomi dan ahli sejarah terkenal di A.S. dalam bukunya "The 100".

Menurut Michael Hart, Nabi Muhammad SAW adalah orang yang paling berpengaruh di antara berbilion penduduk dunia, kerana Baginda satu-satunya manusia yang berhasil secara luar biasa baik dalam kegiatan keagamaan maupun pemerintahan.

Senarai lengkap nama 100 orang paling berpengaruh didunia adalah seperti dibawah;

1.Nabi Muhammad SAW51.Umar bin Khatab
2.Isaac Newton52.Asoka
3.Nabi Isa53.Sam Augustine
4.Buddha54.Max Planck
5.Confucius55.John Calvin
6.Saint Paul56.William Morton
7.Thai Lun57.William Harvey
8.Johan Gutemberg58.Antoine Becquerel
9.Christopher Columbus59.Greger Mendel
10.Albert Einstein60.Joseph Lister
11.Karl Marx61.Nicholas August Otto
12.Louis Pasteur62.Louis Daguerre
13.Galileo Galilei63.Joseph Stalin
14.Aristoteles64.Rene Descartes
15.V.I. Lenin65.Julius Caesar
16.Nabi Musa66.Francisco Pizarro
17.Charles Darwin67.Hernando Cortes
18.Chin Huang Ti68.Ratu Isabella I
19.Agustus Caesar69.William the Congqueror
20.Mao Tse-tung70.Thomas Jefferson
21.Genghis Khan71.Jean Jacques Rousseau
22.Euclid72.Edward Jenner
23.Martin Luther73.Wilhelm Rontgen
24.Nicolas Copernicus74.Johan Sebastian Bach
25.James Watt75.Lau-tzu
26.Constantine the Great76.Enrico Ferni
27.George Washington77.Thomas Maltus
28.Michael Faraday78.Francis Bacon
29.James Clerk Maxwell79.Voltaire
30.Orville dan Wilbur Wright80.John F. Kennedy
31.Antoine Laurent Lavoisier81.Gregory Pincus
32.Sigmund Freud82.Sui Wen Ti
33.lskandar Zulkarnaen83.Mani (Manes)
34.Napoleon Bonaparte84.Vasco da Gama
35.Adolf Hitler85.Charlemagne
36.William Shakespeare86.Cyrys the Great
37.Adam Smith87.Leonard Euler
38.Thomas Edison88.Nicollo Machiavelli
39.Anton van Leuwenhoek89.Zoroaster
41.Gugleilmo Marconi91.Peter the Great
42.Ludwig van Beethoven92.Mencius
43,Werner Heisenberg93.John Dalton
44.Alexander G Bell94.Homer
45.Alexander Fleming95.Ratu Elizabeth I
46.Simon Bolivar96.Justinian I
47.Oliver Cromwell97.Johannes Kepler
48.John Locke98.Pablo Picasso
50.Pans Urban II100.Niels Bohr

 info dipetik dari

Saturday, September 25, 2010

Biology Chap. 9- Close up on Durians

Source: Wikipedia

Durio kutejensis fruits, also known as durian merah
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Helicteroideae
Tribe: Durioneae
Genus: Durio


The Jesuit Michał Boym provided one of the early (1655) reports on durian (upper right) to European scholars
The durian has been known and consumed in southeastern Asia since prehistoric times, but has only been known to the western world for about 600 years. The earliest known European reference to the durian is the record of Niccolò Da Conti, who travelled to southeastern Asia in the 15th century.[4] The Portuguese physician Garcia de Orta described durians in Colóquios dos Simples e Drogas da India published in 1563. In 1741, Herbarium Amboinense by the German botanist Georg Eberhard Rumphius was published, providing the most detailed and accurate account of durians for over a century. The genus Durio has a complex taxonomy that has seen the subtraction and addition of many species since it was created by Rumphius.[5] During the early stages of its taxonomical study, there was some confusion between durian and the soursop (Annona muricata), for both of these species had thorny green fruit.[4] It is also interesting to note the Malay name for the soursop is durian Belanda, meaning Dutch durian.[35] In the 18th century, Johann Anton Weinmann considered the durian to belong to Castaneae as its fruit was similar to the horse chestnut.
Durio zibethinus. Chromolithograph by Hoola Van Nooten, circa 1863
D. zibethinus was introduced into Ceylon by the Portuguese in the 16th century and was reintroduced many times later. It has been planted in the Americas but confined to botanical gardens. The first seedlings were sent from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, to Auguste Saint-Arroman of Dominica in 1884.[36]
In southeastern Asia the durian has been cultivated for centuries at the village level, probably since the late 18th century, and commercially since the mid-20th century.[4] In My Tropic Isle, Australian author and naturalist Edmund James Banfield tells how, in the early 20th century, a friend in Singapore sent him a durian seed, which he planted and cared for on his tropical island off the north coast of Queensland.[37]
In 1949, the British botanist E. J. H. Corner published The Durian Theory, or the Origin of the Modern Tree. His theory was that endozoochory (the enticement of animals to transport seeds in their stomach) arose before any other method of seed dispersal, and that primitive ancestors of Durio species were the earliest practitioners of that dispersal method, in particular the red durian exemplifying the primitive fruit of flowering plants.
Since the early 1990s, the domestic and international demand for durian in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region has increased significantly, partly due to the increasing affluence of Asia.[4]

Biology- Lamprey

Source: Wikipedia

Fossil range: Late Devonian–Recent [1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia
Order: Petromyzontiformes
Family: Petromyzontidae

Lampreys (sometimes also called lamprey eels) are jawless fishes, whose adults are characterized by a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. Translated from Latin, lamprey means stone lickers (lambere: to lick, and petra: stone). While lampreys are well known for those species which bore into the flesh of other fish to suck their blood, most species of lamprey are non-parasitic and never feed on other fishes[2]. In zoology, lampreys are sometimes not considered to be true fish because of their distinctive morphology and physiology.

Lampreys live mostly in coastal and fresh waters, although some species, (e.g. Geotria australis, Petromyzon marinus, Entosphenus tridentatus) travel significant distances in the open ocean, as evidenced by their lack of reproductive isolation between populations. They are found in most temperate regions except those in Africa. Their larvae have a low tolerance for high water temperatures, which may explain why they are not distributed in the tropics.
Adults physically resemble eels, in that they have no scales, and can range anywhere from 13 to 100 centimetres (5 to 40 inches) long. Lacking paired fins, adult lampreys have large eyes, one nostril on the top of the head, and seven gill pores on each side of the head. The unique morphological characteristics of lampreys, such as their cartilaginous skeleton, suggest that they are the sister taxon (see cladistics) of all living jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), and are usually considered the most basal group of the Vertebrata. They feed on prey as adults by attaching their mouthparts to the target animal's body, then using their teeth to cut through surface tissues until they reach blood and body fluid. They will generally not attack humans unless starved.[3][4] Hagfish, which superficially resemble lampreys, are the sister taxon of the true vertebrates (lampreys and gnathostomes).[4]
Lampreys provide valuable insight into the evolution of the adaptive immune system, as they possess a convergently evolved adaptive immunity with cells that function like the T cells and B cells seen in higher vertebrates. Lamprey leukocytes express surface Variable Lympocyte Receptors (VLRs) generated from somatic recombination of leucine-rich repeats gene segments in a recombination activating gene-independent manner.[5]
Geotria australis larvae also has a very high tolerance free iron in the body, and have well-developed biochemical systems for detoxification of the large quantities of this metal[6].

Relation to humans


Larger lamprey in a restaurant tank waiting to be cooked and served.
Portuguese Lamprey rice.
Lampreys have long been used as food for humans. They were highly appreciated by ancient Romans. During the Middle Ages, they were widely eaten by the upper classes throughout Europe, especially during fasting periods, since their taste is much meatier than that of most true fish. King Henry I of England is said to have died from eating "a surfeit of lampreys".[15] On 4 March 1953, the Queen of the United Kingdom's coronation pie was made by the Royal Air Force using lampreys.[citation needed] Especially in southwestern Europe (Portugal, Spain, and France), larger lampreys are still a highly prized delicacy. Overfishing has reduced their number in those parts. Lampreys are also consumed in Sweden, Finland, Russia, the Baltic countries and South Korea.
In Britain, lampreys are commonly used as bait, normally as dead bait. Pike, perch and chub all can be caught on lampreys. Lampreys can be bought frozen from most bait and tackle shops.
Lampreys are used as a model organism in biomedical research where their large reticulospinal axons are used to investigate synaptic transmission.[16] The axons of lamprey are particularly large and allow for microinjection of substances for experimental manipulation.

As pests

Lampreys attached to a lake trout.
Sea lampreys have become a major plague in the North American Great Lakes after artificial canals allowed their entry during the early 20th century. They are considered an invasive species, have no natural enemies in the lakes and prey on many species of commercial value, such as lake trout. Since the majority of North American consumers, unlike Europeans, refuse to accept lampreys as food, the Great Lakes fishery has been adversely affected by their invasion. Lampreys are now found mostly in the streams that feed the lakes, with special barriers to prevent the upstream movement of adults, or by the application of toxicants called lampricides, which are harmless to most other aquatic species. However those programs are complicated and expensive, and do not eradicate the lampreys from the lakes but merely keep them in check. New programs are being developed including the use of chemically sterilized male lamprey in a method akin to the sterile insect technique. Research currently under way on the use of pheromones and how they may be used to disrupt the life cycle (Sorensen, et al., 2005) has met with some success.[17] Control of sea lampreys in the Great Lakes is conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans. The work is coordinated by the Great Lakes Fishery Commission.
Lake Champlain, bordered by New York State, Vermont, and Quebec, and New York's Finger Lakes are also home to populations of sea lampreys whose high populations have warranted control. Lake Champlain's lamprey control program is managed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. New York's Finger Lakes sea lamprey control program is managed solely by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

Wednesday, September 15, 2010

Homework Raya

Sorry guys, da lama tak update. Update kali ni, tentang homework Raya je la ye. Untuk kawan2 4 Sains 1 dan juga kelas lain, ini saja yang dapat aku tolong.

 Setiap orang kene wat PEKA, ada 4. Activity 3.3, 3.4, 6.3 dan 6.8. Siapa yang datang pd hari terakhir sekolah hari tu dah wat n hantar act. 3.3.